Iris + Arlo's Glossary


Abdomen: The lower part of the trunk, also called the belly. It is the lower part of the trunk, also called the belly.
Adhesions: Pieces of scar tissue that form naturally around the abdomen.

Basal body temperature: The lowest temperature of the body at rest.

Breast ducts: Also called milk ducts, breast ducts are thin tubes in the breast that carry milk from the breast lobules to the nipples.

Cervix: The lower part of the uterus that connects it to the vagina.

Chronic disease: These are non-contagious diseases that are present over the long term. They can be stable or evolve.

Cyclical breast pain: where the pain is related to periods.

Demystify: Breaking down the myths around a fact.

Dopamine: A compound found in the body as a neurotransmitter and precursor to other substances, including epinephrine.
Dysmenorrhea: Dysmenorrhea refers to menstrual cramps. It is characterized by pain in the lower abdomen, sometimes extending to the lumbar region, hips and legs. For some menstruating women, it is also accompanied by nausea, headaches, diarrhea or constipation. Dysmenorrhea usually lasts for one to three days and starts a little before or at the beginning of menstruation. 
There are two types of dysmenorrhea. The first has no evidence of pathology, while the second is caused by a specific pelvic pathological condition such as endometriosis, adenomyosis or fibroids.
Dyspareunia: Dyspareunia is defined as pain during sexual intercourse at the time of vaginal penetration. The pain can be felt before, during or after the sexual act. It can be present at the entrance of the vagina, which is referred to as superficial dyspareunia, or deep inside the vagina, which is referred to as deep dyspareunia. The causes and symptoms may vary from one person with a vagina to another.

Endometrial debris: Debris related to the endometrium.

Endometrium: The mucous tissue inside the uterus. It is the detachment of the endometrium from the lining of the uterus each month that causes the blood flow of menstruation. The endometrium is rebuilt during the rest of the menstrual cycle.

Endometriosis: 1) Endometriosis is a condition that affects 1 in 10 menstruating women of childbearing age. This gynecological disease is characterized by the presence of the endometrium, the tissue lining the uterine cavity, elsewhere in the body. The areas that are most affected are the ovaries, fallopian tubes, ligaments of the uterus, the outside of the uterus and, in slightly less frequent cases, the intestines, bladder and rectum. These tissues normally respond to the menstrual cycle by thickening, breaking down and shedding. However, while these flows normally evacuate through the vagina, the tissue formed by endometriosis has no way to leave the body. This leads to inflammation and sometimes scarring that causes pain and can lead to infertility problems.

2) Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the development and growth of endometrial stroma and glands outside the uterine cavity. Early puberty and dyspareunia are the most common symptoms, followed by mood swings, depression and anxiety.

Endorphins: Any of a group of hormones secreted in the brain and nervous system that have a number of physiological functions. They are peptide substances that activate the body's opiate receptors, causing an analgesic effect.

Estrogen-progestin contraception: Medication that prevents pregnancy, such as the birth control pill.

Estrogen: Any of a group of steroid hormones which promote the development and maintenance of female characteristics of the body. Such hormones are also produced artificially for use in oral contraceptives or to treat menopausal and menstrual disorders
Excision: Excision is a form of female genital mutilation in which the clitoris and sometimes the labia minora are removed. This mutilation is practiced in some African countries as a ritual to control women's sexuality. It is a forbidden practice in most countries of the world. Many organizations are campaigning to abolish clitoral excision around the world

Fallopian tubes: The fallopian tubes are two channels on either side of the uterus, connecting it to the ovaries to allow the transport of eggs. They are the site of fertilization.

Fibroids: A benign tumor that develops in the uterus. It can cause abnormal bleeding from the vagina, constipation, miscarriage and frequent urination.

Gut-brain connection: The physical and chemical connections between your gut and your brain. 

Hypothalamic amenorrhea: Hypothalamic amenorrhea is a condition in which menstruation stops for several months due to a problem involving the hypothalamus.
Hypothalamus: The hypothalamus is located in the center of the brain, controls reproduction and produces gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).

Hysterectomy: Surgical removal of the uterus.

Implantation disorder: Implantation in the uterus takes place when the embryo manages to adhere to the endometrium. Certain bodily phenomena can prevent proper embryo implantation, thus affecting the possibility of starting a pregnancy.

Iodine: A non-metallic halogen element that is an essential nutrient in the human diet and is used in medicine, photography, and analytical chemistry, among other things.

Laparoscopic surgery: A type of abdominal surgery that involves making an incision in the belly and inserting a laparoscope (a thin tube-like instrument with a light source and lens).

Lumbar: Refers to the lower part of the spine.

Mammary glands: A mammary gland is present in each breast and contains between 15 and 20 compartments that are divided by fatty tissue. These different compartments contain lobules and ducts that allow the production and circulation of milk to the nipples.
MAP: Person with menstruation.

Menstrual cycle: The menstrual cycle is a mechanism that prepares a menstruating person's body for pregnancy each month. The cycle begins on the first day of menstruation and ends just before the next period. It usually lasts between 21 and 35 days.

Milk glands: Any of the large compounds modified sebaceous glands that in female mammals are modified to secrete milk are situated ventrally in pairs, and usually terminate in a nipple.

Myometrium: The myometrium is the uterine muscle that represents one of the two layers of the uterine wall, the other being the endometrium. During menstruation, the myometrium contracts and facilitates the evacuation of blood. It is considered the most powerful muscle in the female body. Through its contractions, the myometrium is responsible for the expulsion of the baby during childbirth.

Neurotransmitter: A substance that allows information to be transmitted between neurons.

Non-steroidal: Refers to a drug with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. They are most commonly used to reduce pain, inflammation or fever.

Ovary: The ovaries are two organs of the female reproductive system located on either side of the uterus. Their function is to produce eggs as well as female sex hormones.

Ovarian follicle: A structure of cells in the ovaries containing oocytes, released during ovulation.

Ovarian cyst: An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac or pouch that forms inside or on the surface of the ovary of a menstruating woman, usually in tandem with her monthly menstrual cycle

Ovocytes: Female reproductive cell, capable of being fertilized by a spermatozoon to obtain an embryo.

Ovulation: Ovulation refers to the release of an egg from the ovary into the fallopian tubes. It is a phenomenon that usually occurs once in a menstrual cycle.

Ovum: The ovum, sometimes called "egg", is a cell produced by the ovary, which once fertilized by a spermatozoon allows the formation of an embryo.

Perineum: The female perineum, also known as the pelvic floor, is a set of diamond-shaped muscles that support the lower digestive, urinary and genital tracts. It ensures the opening and closing of the bladder. It surrounds three orifices: the urethra, the vagina and the anus.

PMS/SPM: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) refers to symptoms and/or changes in mood, breast tenderness, food cravings, fatigue, irritability and depression.

Pollakiuria: Pollakiuria is a frequent and urgent urge to urinate several times during the day or night. The patient urinates in small quantities. This inflammatory disorder can have many different causes. 

Progesterone: A female hormone that prepares the uterus for pregnancy.

Prostaglandins: Hormones involved in many of the body's reactions such as clotting, reproduction and mucosal preservation.

Pubis: The pubis is both a bone that is part of the front of the pelvis and directly related, a term that refers to the area between the lower abdomen and the sexual organs. Its purpose is to cover the uterus and therefore protect the reproductive organs, specifically where the embryo develops during pregnancy.

Pituitary gland: The pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland contained in a bony structure at the base of the brain.

Secondary amenorrhea: Secondary amenorrhea refers to the absence of three or more periods in a row in a person who has had a period in the past. Pregnancy is the most common cause of secondary amenorrhea, but hormonal problems can also be the cause. Treatment of amenorrhea depends on the cause.

Serotonin: A compound found in blood platelets that tightens blood vessels.

Sex hormones: Estrogen and progesterone.

Spermatozoid: The spermatozoon represents the male reproductive cell produced by the testes. It is the union between the sperm and the egg that causes fertilization.

Stagnation of discharge: The state of discharge that does not move or flow. 

Trans: A person whose gender identity differs from their biological sex assigned at birth is said to be transgender. 

Urinary frequency: Urinary frequency is the frequent and urgent need to urinate several times during the day or night. The patient urinates in small amounts and most of the time, the feeling of needing to urinate persists even after emptying the bladder. This inflammatory disorder can have a variety of causes. Progesterone: A female hormone that prepares the uterus for pregnancy.

Uterine adenomyosis: A form of internal endometriosis characterized by tissue invasion from the endometrium to the uterine muscle, the myometrium.

Uterine cavity: Refers to the central part of the uterus. It is the place where the egg is deposited during pregnancy.

Uterine mucosa: Refers to the endometrium, the inner part of the uterus. Menstruation is bleeding that results from the destruction of the endometrium if it has not been fertilized.

Uterus: A part of the female reproductive system where the baby develops. It is located between the bladder and the rectum, above the vagina.

Vulvar vestibule: The vulvar vestibule is a part of the vulva. It is the part between the labia minora where the urethral opening and the vaginal opening open. It is the area most stimulated during masturbation and also the first to receive lubrication.

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